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Main entrance portal of the Dolmabahçe palace in Istanbul

Turkey's political system

Turkey is a republic. According to Article 2 of the Turkish Constitution (Anayasa), Turkey is a democratic, secular and social constitutional state. The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk after the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War.
Its current Constitution came into force in 1982.

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The founding of the Republic by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

The Turkish Republic was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. On 29. October 1923, he proclaimed to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey the foundation of the Republic. The State is based on Kemalism, named after Atatürk. The Kalifat was abolished and religion and state separated. In 1937, the 6 principles of Kemalism were anchored into the Constitution, however, later abandoned. A multi-party system was introduced in 1950. Today, Turkey is a parliamentary democracy. Legislation is the responsibility of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

Further information about Turkey

in Wikipedia

in the CIA World-Fact-Book

at SPIEGEL online


Information on the negotiations for EU entry

with the European Commission

Role of the military

The Turkish Military has to date seized power three times by means of a coup (1960–1961, 1971–1973 and most recently 1980–1983).  This happened each time with the justification of ending the continuously smouldering political crises. In 1997 a non-violent military intervention (this time the National Security Council was used) caused the government to resign.

Entry into the European Union

An important goal for the present political powers is the entry into the EU.
In the course of this, Turkey is being criticised for the present situation regarding human rights and the policies regarding minorities. In order to improve this situation, several amendments to legislation (among others in criminal law) and the Constitution were made. The fact that the EU is approaching these problems in Turkey with a certain double morality due to obviously political reasons will probably prove to be contra productive.

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